Computational authorship studies are an increasingly popular topic for research among specialists mediante both elaboratore science and the humanities It can be considered per form of style-based document authentication (Echtheitskritik), which has valuable applications that extend well beyond the domain of literary analysis, to, for instance, the domain of forensic sciences. According sicuro Stamatatos’s 2009
It can be considered per form of style-based document authentication (Echtheitskritik), which has valuable applications that extend well beyond the domain of literary analysis, to, for instance, the domain of forensic sciences. According sicuro Stamatatos’s 2009 survey of the field, ‘[t]he main timore behind statistically or computationally-supported authorship attribution is that by measuring some textual features we can distinguish between texts written by different authors.’22 22 Ancora. Stamatatos, ‘Verso survey’ (n. 14, above) 538. This basic assumption implies that it should be possible sicuro assess, for any new unseen document, whether or not it was written by other authors for whom we have texts available. Nowadays computational authorship studies are often considered verso subfield of stylometry in the digital humanities, the broader computational study of the writing style of texts.23 23 D. Holmes, ‘The evolution of stylometry per humanities scholarship’, LLC 13 (1998) 111–17.
While stylometry has a rich history, dating back onesto at least the nineteenth century, it is clear that it received its most important impetus only mediante the past two or three decades, stimulated by the rise of (personal) computing and the increased availability of large bodies of text per electronic form. Apart from the influential, yet more conventional, statistical analyses carried out by pioneers such as Mosteller and Wallace or John Burrows well before the 1990s, an influential approach con authorship studies has been sicuro approach the attribution of anonymous texts as verso ‘text categorization’ problem.24 24 Mosteller and Wallace, Inference and disputed authorship (n. 4, above) and J. Burrows, Computation into criticism: verso study of Jane Austen’s novels (Oxford 1987). Heavily influenced by parallel research mediante calcolatore elettronico science, the pensiero was to optimize per statistical classifier on example texts by per number of available candidate authors, much like verso spam filter nowadays is still https://datingranking.net/it/senior-sizzle-review/ trained on manually annotated emails sicuro learn how onesto distinguish between ‘junk’ email and normal messages.25 25 F. Sebastiani, ‘Machine learning sopra automated text categorisation’, ACM Computer Surveys 34 (2002) 1–47. After istruzione such verso classifier on this example giorno, the classifier could then be used to categorize or classify anonymous text as belonging sicuro one of the addestramento authors’ oeuvres.
It resembles a police lineup, per which the correct author of an anonymous text has puro be singled out from a series of available candidate authors for whom reference or ‘training’ material is available
This text categorization setup is commonly known as ‘authorship attribution’.26 26 The following paragraph heavily draws on M. Koppel and Y. Winter, ‘Determining if two documents are written by the same author’, JASIST 65 (2014) 178–187. For a number of years, practitioners of stylometry have che preciso acknowledge the limitations of authorship attribution, because it necessarily assumes that the correct target author is indeed included durante the batteria of candidates. Durante many real-world cases, this problematic assumption cannot possibly be made, because the serie of relevant candidates is difficult or impossible to establish beforehand. Because of this, the setup of authorship verification has recently been introduced as per new framework: here, the task is puro verify whether or not an anonymous document was written by one or several of verso series of candidate authors. Sopra some sense, authorship verification redefines the text categorization problem by adding an additional category label: ‘None of the above.’
Durante the present context, it should be emphasized that the problem posed by the HA is per ‘vanilla’ example of a problem per authorship verification: while the insieme indeed contains per number of (auto-) attributions, the veracity of all of these has been questioned sopra previous scholarship
Verification is hence an increasingly common experimental setup mediante authorship studies, and is the topic of per dedicated track durante the yearly PAN competition, an annual competition on finding computational solutions puro issues mediante present-day textual forensics, mostly related esatto the detection of plagiarism, authorship, and accommodant programma misuse (such as grooming or Wikipedia vandalism).27 27 The competition’s website is pan.webis.de. The most recent survey of an authorship verification track is: Di nuovo. Stamatatos et al., ‘Overview of the author identification task at PAN 2015′ durante Working Taccuino Papers of the CLEF 2015 Evaluation Labs, addirittura. L. Cappellato et al. (2015). Generally speaking, authorship verification is per more generic problem than authorship attribution – i.addirittura. every attribution problem could, durante principle, be cast as per verification problem – but it has also proven preciso be more challenging. Con our experiments, we have therefore attempted to radically minimize any assumptions on our part as preciso the authorial provenance of the texts con the HA. For each piece of text analysed below, we propose puro independently assess the probability that it was written by one of the (alleged) individual authors identified durante the raccolta.
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